The 25 ha (500m x 500m) Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot had its first census from 2003-2004. Three subsequent censuses of growth, mortality, and recruitment were conducted during 2008-2009, 2013-2014, and 2019 respectively. A mean total of 115,778 individuals, which belongs to 111 species, was recorded in the first census (Su et al. 2007). Fushan FDP is located in the subtropical rainforest of northern Taiwan (24°45’40”N, 121°33’28”E). The site is situated in an old-growth sub montane rainforest which can be categorized as the Machilus-Castanopsis zone of broad-leaved forests in Taiwan (Su 1984). The Fushan FDP is located in a small upstream watershed and the topography is uneven and rugged with the elevation ranging from 600 to 733 above sea level. The soils are extremely acidic (pH 3.3~4.3) with low organic carbon content and fertility (Su et al. 2007).
The climate of Fushan is influenced by the northern monsoon in winter and by typhoons during the summer. Mean annual rainfall is 4271 mm with an average temperature of 18.2 ºC and a mean relative humidity of 95.1 % (Su et al. 2007). Rain falls throughout the year (no dry months with < 100 mm of precipitation), but is heavier during the typhoon season from July to September.