Litter production of the stand, including trees and lianas of all species combined, is monitored using a set of aboveground and ground litter traps (n=100 pairs). Traps are located systematically or randomly within plots. Each aboveground litter trap has a surface area of 0.5 m2 and is elevated off the ground to reduce risk of seed predation. Ground traps are next to the aboveground trap and are used to monitor palm fronds and branchfalls of material that is too large to be captured in the aboveground traps. The traps are censused on a weekly to monthly basis. Trap contents are oven-dried at 65 C, then sorted into leaves, reproductive parts (flowers, seeds, fruits), fine woody material, and other. These fractions are weighed for each trap.