Flower and seed production of trees and lianas is monitored using flower/seed traps (n=60-336; varies by site). Each flower trap has a surface area of 0.5 m2 and is elevated off the ground to reduce risk of seed predation. Traps are located randomly within plots (to represent different habitat types), or in a stratified random design at 4-13 m intervals on alternating sides of pre-existing trails. Specimens are collected weekly to bimonthly. All plant reproductive parts are identified to species, seed and fruits are counted and flowers recorded on a qualitative logarithmic scale.