To monitor the establishment, growth, and survival of seedlings, three 1-m2 seedling plots are installed in association with each flower/seed trap (n≤1,008 seedling plots associated with ≤336 seed traps; n varies by site). Woody seedlings are identified, measured (height and number of leaves), and permanently tagged. They are monitored annually (quarterly at some sites) from germination until plants reach 1 cm DBH and enter the core census. Canopy photographs are taken over each seedling plot annually to assess light availability. The proximity of seed traps and seedling plots enables an evaluation of the seed-to-seedling transition through comparisons of seed inputs and seedling recruitment.