Methodological considerations for monitoring soil/litter arthropods in tropical rainforests using DNA metabarcoding, with a special emphasis on ants, springtails and termites
Robust data to refute or support claims of global insect decline are currently lacking, particularly for the soil fauna in the tropics. DNA metabarcoding represents a powerful approach for rigorous spatial and temporal monitoring of the taxonomically challenging soil fauna. Here, we provide a detailed field protocol, which was successfully applied in Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in Panama, to collect soil samples and arthropods in a tropical rainforest, to be later processed with metabarcoding. We also estimate the proportion of soil/litter ant, springtail and termite species from the local fauna that can be detected by metabarcoding samples obtained either from Berlese-Tullgren (soil samples), Malaise or light traps. Each collecting method detected a rather distinct fauna. Soil and Malaise trap samples detected 213 species (73%) of all target species. Malaise trap samples detected many ant species, whereas soil samples were more efficient at detecting springtail and termite species. With respect to long-term monitoring of soil-dwelling and common species (more amenable to statistical trends), the best combination of two methods were soil and light trap samples, detecting 94% of the total of common species. A protocol including 100 soil, 40 Malaise and 80 light trap samples annually processed by metabarcoding would allow the long-term monitoring of at least 11%, 18% and 16% of species of soil/litter ants, springtails and termites, respectively, present on BCI, and a high proportion of the total abundance (up to 80% of all individuals) represented by these taxa.