丰林典型阔叶红松林地表鞘翅目成虫空间异质性及其与环境因子的空间关联性 / Spatial heterogeneities of ground-dwelling Coleoptera adults and their spatial correlations with environmental factors in a typical broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Fenglin Nature Reserve
土壤动物群落空间异质性及其与环境因子的空间作用关系, 是揭示土壤生态系统格局与过程及生物多样性维持机制的重要基础。作者于2015年生长季节(8月)、寒冷季节(10月)在丰林典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地内, 采用陷阱法调查地表鞘翅目成虫群落, 基于地统计空间分析方法, 揭示步甲科和隐翅虫科群落个体数和物种数及优势种的空间格局, 并分析这些空间格局与土壤含水量和地形因子的空间关联性。两次采样共捕获步甲科成虫26种617只, 隐翅虫科19种222只。8月群落个体数和物种数表现为中等变异, 10月为强变异, 群落组成在两个月间具有显著差异。生长季节(8月)和寒冷季节(10月)步甲科和隐翅虫科群落多表现为中等的空间自相关性, 空间分异由随机性因素和结构性因素共同决定。单个物种的个体数多具有中等的空间异质性特征, 且其空间分异主要由随机性因素和结构性因素共同调控。生长季节群落的个体数、物种数和优势种个体数多形成斑块和孔隙镶嵌分布的空间格局。物种之间及物种与环境因子之间多为复杂的空间关联性, 这些关联性主要受到结构性因素或随机性因素的单一调控。典范对应分析(canonical correspondence analysis, CCA)结果表明, 8月土壤含水量对步甲科和隐翅虫科物种分布影响显著, 10月凹凸度对步甲科分布影响显著, 海拔对隐翅虫科分布具有显著影响。本研究表明地表步甲科和隐翅虫科在生长季节形成明显的空间格局而在寒冷季节空间格局不明显, 为不同尺度地表土壤动物空间异质性和生物多样性维持机制研究提供了理论基础。
Spatial heterogeneities of soil animal communities and their associations with environmental factors are important for revealing the patterns and processes of soil ecosystems and maintenance mechanisms of soil biodiversity. This experiment was conducted in a typical mixed broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in the Fenglin Nature Reserve in August and October of 2015. Geostatistics was used to reveal the spatial patterns of species number and individuals of ground-dwelling Carabidae and Staphylinidae adult communities and dominant species, and to explain the associations between these spatial patterns and soil water content and topographic variables. In total, 26 and 19 species of Carabidae and Staphylinidae beetles were caught and 617 and 222 individuals were collected, respectively. Variabilities in individuals and species numbers of communities were moderate in August and strong in October. Community compositions were significantly different between the two months. Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities showed moderate spatial autocorrelations in both growing (August) and relatively cold (October) seasons. Spatial heterogeneities of the Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities were determined by both random and structural factors. However, most species individuals exhibited significant spatial heterogeneities and these heterogeneities were controlled by structural factors. Individuals and species number of communities and dominant species individuals formed mosaic patterns with patches and gaps. Spatial associations between individuals and species numbers of communities and dominant species individuals with environmental factors were complex. Spatial associations were mainly controlled by structural or random factors. CCA analysis showed that soil water content in August had a significant effect on the species distribution of Carabidae and Staphylinidae adults in August. In October, the convexity had a significant impact on the distribution of Carabidae adults, and altitude was significantly related to the distribution of Staphylinidae adults. This experiment suggests that the spatial heterogeneities of Carabidae and Staphylinidae adults were obvious in the growing season, but not obvious in the relatively cold season. The results of this study will help us to understand the spatial variation and biodiversity maintenance mechanisms of soil animal communities at multiple scales.
Abstract in Chinese and English; paper in Chinese only.