钱江源国家公园古田山常绿阔叶林木本植物的萌生更新特征 / Sprouting characteristics of woody species in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Gutianshan of Qianjiangyuan National Park
萌生更新是木本植物在原位进行更新的有效手段，使群落具有较强的恢复力。但以往研究侧重于实生更新，森林中木本植物的萌生更新特征及其在森林群落中的地位仍未得到足够理解。基于钱江源国家公园古田山国家级自然保护区内5 hm2亚热带常绿阔叶林样地的群落数据，分析木本植物萌生更新的数量特征，同时对不同分类单元、不同功能类群的萌生能力等进行比较。结果表明：（1）样地内64%的物种、20%的实生个体已经发生萌生更新现象，且萌生茎的数量占样地总个体数量的24%；（2）物种水平与科水平上，萌生能力均表现为显著差异（F=13.11，P < 0.001；F=27.45，P < 0.001）。腺蜡瓣花、柳叶蜡梅、宜昌荚蒾、窄基红褐柃、美丽马醉木等物种的萌生能力较强，蜡梅科、忍冬科、木兰科、壳斗科等类群的萌生能力较强；（3）不同垂直结构层次（林冠层、亚乔木层、灌木层）的萌生能力差异显著（F=117.5，P < 0.001），灌木层物种的萌生能力是林冠层与亚乔木层的1倍左右。不同生活型（常绿组分与落叶组分）的萌生能力差异显著，常绿类群的萌生能力显著高于落叶类群（P < 0.001）。萌生更新在亚热带常绿阔叶林中具有重要地位，可能是物种多样性维持、群落更新与演替的机制之一。灌木物种与常绿物种有着较强的萌生能力，暗示着萌生可能是植物适应荫蔽环境的生态策略之一。
Sprouting, an effective means of regeneration in woody plants, gives the forest community a great resilience. However, most previous studies focused on seedling regeneration, so the importance of sprouting regeneration in forests are still not well understood. Using a 5 hm2 plot of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve of Qianjiangyuan National Park, we quantitatively analyzed the characteristics of sprouting in woody plants, and the variations of the sprouting abilities of different taxa and different functional groups. Results showed that: (1) 64% of species and 20% of individuals had sprouted, and sprouted stems accounted for 24% of the total individuals in the plot. (2) There were significant differences in sprouting ability both on the species level and on the family level (F=13.11, P < 0.001; F=27.45, P < 0.001). More precisely, the species Corylopsis glandulifera, Chimonanthus salicifolius, Viburnum erosum, Eurya rubiginosa var. attenuata, and Pieris formosa, and those in Calycanthaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Magnoliaceae, and Fagaceae had high sprouting abilities. (3) There were significant differences among different vertical structure layers in sprouting ability (F=117.5, P < 0.001), and the sprouting abilities of species in the shrub layer were about twice those in the canopy layer and sub-canopy layer. Significant differences in sprouting ability were also detected between different life forms (evergreen vs. deciduous), where the sprouting ability in evergreen groups was higher than that in deciduous groups (P < 0.001). Sprouting regeneration plays an important role in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and may be one of the mechanisms related to species diversity maintenance and community succession. Shrub species and evergreen species have strong sprouting ability, implying that sprouting may be a plant strategy for shade tolerance.